URTeC Conference, July 2018

Revealing Geologic Features in the Midland Basin Through Frequency Decomposition

Using conventional reflectivity data alone to determine geologic features from seismic is a long drawn out process which requires careful interpretation of several surfaces.  In order to help make the process more efficient, attribute volumes and RGB (Red, Green, Blue) blends of frequency bandpass volumes can be used to reveal the geology before interpretation begins. Read More

EAGE First Break, May 2018

Understanding  frequency decomposition color blends using forward modelling — examples from the Scarborough gas field

Frequency Decomposition (FD) color blending of 3D seismic data has become a mainstream technique used by oil and gas industry G&G specialists for imaging subsurface geology. The workflow involves creating frequency band-restricted components of the seismic data and blending these together into a single volume, typically using a three-dimensional, red-green-blue (RGB) color scheme. 

EAGE Geophysical Prospecting, May 2018

High‐definition frequency decomposition

Spectral decomposition is a widely used technique in analysis and interpretation of seismic data. According to the uncertainty principle, there exists a lower bound for the joint time–frequency resolution of seismic signals. The highest temporal resolution is achieved by a matching pursuit approach which uses waveforms from a dictionary of functions (atoms). This method, in its pure mathematical form can result in atoms whose shape and phase have no relation to the seismic trace. Read more

EAGE First Break, March 2018

Derisking the Thebe Discovery through cognitive interpretation

The Exmouth Plateau, offshore Northwest Australia has been an area for hydrocarbon exploration for several decades, with a number of significant gas and oil fields being discovered. One of these encounters is the Thebe Discovery. With the successful drilling of the Thebe-1 well in 2007, which penetrated a 73 m gas column, further well activity continued. See more


Leading Edge - October 2017

High-resolution microseismic imaging

We examine the feasibility of high-resolution microseismic imaging of unconventional reservoirs. Given Frequencies in typical downhole microseismic data that are almost an order of magnitude higher than in seismic reflection data, a comparable increase in image resolution might be expected, bringing a potential resolution of downhole microseismic images to a few meters. Read more

SEG Interpretation Journal August 2017

Closing the seismic resolution gap of fractures through seismic and image-log analysis, a North Sea case study

The “seismic resolution gap” has been an area of ambiguity ever since the results of 3D seismic interpretation have been used as inputs for modeling purposes because many important structural events such as fractures are at or below seismic resolution, which can impinge reservoir properties such as porosity and permeability. Read more

EAGE Paris, June 2017

Cognitive approach to derisking the Thebe Discovery and its future potential, Exmouth Plateau

The Thebe discovery was proven in 2007, however, the field is yet to be brought on to production. This study looks at undertaking a development based analysis through cognitive interpretation to identify and delineate potential risk and uncertainty of the discovery, along with identification of any future potential in the Thebe area. Read more

Calibration of frequency decomposition color blends using forward modelling. Examples from the Scarborough Gas Field, Offshore West Australia

This study investigates using a combination of seismic forward modelling with frequency decomposition (FD) and color blending analysis with the aim of better understanding what the major controlling factors on the frequency response are and how this impacts the spectral interference color patterns observed in FD color blends. Read more

De-risking of frontier exploration targets using cognitive interpretation techniques offshore Equatorial Guinea

In this study, prospects identified from a 3D seismic survey, in the Block W lease area, were investigated using a variety of seismic interpretation techniques, to de-risk the prospects and improve the overall geologic probabilities of success. Read more


EAGE First Break Volume 35 | Issue 5 | May 2017

The effect of color blindness on seismic interpretation

Color perception is an intrinsic part of visual cognition and affects how we understand the images that we see. Color is now a fundamental part of how we display seismic reflectivity and attribute data, but not everyone sees color in the same way. Read more


AAPG ACE Houston, April 2017

Prospect Investigation and De-risking Using Cognitive Interpretation Workflows, Offshore Equatorial Guinea

View Abstract 


The Geological Society | Petroleum Geoscience 2017 Volume 23 | Issue 17

"The impact of faults and fluid flow on seismic images of a relay ramp over production time"

Charlotte Botter, et al (2017) Download 


SEG Interpretation Journal Volume 5 | Issue 3 | August 2017

Closing the seismic resolution gap of fractures through seismic and image-log analysis, a North Sea case study

The “seismic resolution gap” has been an area of ambiguity ever since the results of 3D seismic interpretation have been used as inputs for modeling purposes because many important structural events such as fractures are at or below seismic resolution, which can impinge reservoir properties such as porosity and permeability. Having the means to accurately...

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Science Direct November 2016

Seismic characterisation of fault damage in 3D using mechanical and seismic modelling

Although typically interpreted as 2D surfaces, faults are 3D narrow zones of highly and heterogeneously deformed rocks with petrophysical properties differing from the host rock. Fault zones have been extensively studied in outcrop, but in the subsurface they are barely explored, mainly because they are at the limit of seismic resolution and are rarely drilled and cored. Read more

SEG Dallas 2016

4D Seismic Spectral Decomposition over a Pre-Salt Carbonate Reservoir: a feasibility study

In this paper, we investigate the use of spectral
decomposition and facies classification on time-lapse data related to a Brazilian pre-salt carbonate reservoir. Synthetic seismic data were generated through petro-elastic modeling (PEM), which is based on a representative geological model and flow simulator dynamic properties. Read more 

First Break September 2016

European student lecture tour ready for take-off. Read more

Science Direct August 2016

Exploring the seismic expression of fault zones in 3D seismic volumes

Mapping and understanding distributed deformation is a major challenge for the structural interpretation of seismic data. However, volumes of seismic signal disturbance with low signal/noise ratio are systematically observed within 3D seismic datasets around fault systems. Read more

EAGE Vienna, June 2016

Effects of Post Stack Seismic Data Conditioning on Impedance Inversion for Reservoir, Brazilian Pre-salt, Santos Basin

Seismic data conditioning improves signal - to- noise ratio (SNR), mitigate uncertainties and shrink noise artefacts, taking care to preserve the signal associated with geologic features. In the frame of Brazilian Pre-Salt, Santos Basin, which is strongly affected by Salt noise, will be proposed an efficient and straightforward method to deal with seismic data. View the extended abstract here


The Effect of Color Blindness on Seismic Interpretation

Color is an integral part of how we interpret everything that we see, and it is also fundamental to how we communicate with each other, especially when trying to transfer information through reports, presentations and meetings. Color blindness is caused by a reduction in the number of cones in the eye, the cells responsible for our detection of color, and affects about 8% of the population. Read more

The Application of Data Conditioning, Frequency Decomposition and RGB Color Blending in the Gohta Discover (Norway)

Geological Expression workflows, involving data conditioning and frequency decomposition can be used to detect subtle changes within the seismic signal, increase the confidence on the seismic interpretation and de-risk exploration and appraisal wells. Read more

Evaluating the Gap between Seismic-scale and Well-scale Observations of Structure - A North Sea Case Study

Fault and fracture studies for reservoir characterisation have been an essential stage of prospect generation and field development from seismic data and well data respectively. Commonly well image logs are used to predict fracture intensity and orientation, or small-scale faults from seismic interpretation are used. Read more


Geo Convention Calgary March 2016

Comparison of Spectral Enhancement Techniques and Application to Improved Well-to-Seismic Ties

Spectral enhancement is a technique for selectively boosting portions of the seismic signal with distinguishable frequency content. It is often applied to seismic data in order to boost the high frequency content of the data, which can be masked by underlying low frequency signal. Read more

Increasing the reliability of geological models based on multi-attribute seismic analysis

Over the past decade, digital geological modelling based on the analysis of three-dimensional seismic and well information has become a standard practice in exploration and development of oil and gas reservoirs at various scales. Read more


AAPG Bangkok March 2016

Characterising Pay Sand in Basin Floor Channel Complexes using Cognitive Interpretation workflows - a case study from Deep Water Sabah

Sand body delineation remains a challenge in proximal basin floor channel complexes due to the geomorphological complexity. Using Cognitive Interpretation (CI) workflows in combination with Quantitative Interpretation (QI) techniques allowed an interpretation of the pay sand distribution with a higher confidence and reduced uncertainty. Read more



GEO India Conference and Exhibition, January 2015

The application of High-Definition Geological Expression workflows to improve the understanding of a carbonate reservoir, NW Australia

This paper shows how using data-driven interpreter-guided Geological Expression workflows can better reveal the stratigraphic component of geology and bring more comprehensive understanding to exploration and development targets.


ASEG-PESA, February 2015

Prospect Validation Using Geological Expression in a Gas Discovery, Offshore Mozambique

This study attempts to gain a better insight into the controls on an under-saturated gas discovery, offshore Mozambique, using Geological Expression techniques such as High Definition Frequency Decomposition (HDFD) and multi-attribute classifications with synthetic wedge modelling being used to better understand the results. HDFD highlights known hydrocarbon bearing sands as high magnitudes and shows that structural processes are dominant in controlling their distribution. Read more

EAGE Tyumen, March 2015

Geological Model of Channel Deposits Based on Results of Spectral Decomposition and Interactive Analysis of Seismic Data

Over the past decade, digital geological modeling based on the analysis of three-dimensional seismic data securely has become a practice of exploration and development of oil and gas fields. Range of tasks expands every year, among them are risk assessment, reserve calculation, optimization of development scenarios, etc. Accuracy of the model is largely dependent on the complexity of the geological structure, data quality, interpreter experience, and some other subjective or objective factors. Read more

EAGE Workshop, Broadband Marine Seismic Data 2015

Frequency Decomposition of Broadband Seismic Data: Challenges and Solutions

An improved, matching pursuit based high definition frequency decomposition method has been introduced to meet the challenges of broad bandwidth seismic data. Read more

EAGE Madrid, June 2015

Increasing the Reliability of Geological Models Using Spectral Decomposition and Seismic Facies Analysis

The objective of this study was to build a true aesthetic representation of a complex geological channel to deliver a more accurate geocellular model, by transferring the level of detail that can be captured from the seismic into the geocellular model. Read more

SBGF Rio de Janeiro, August 2015

"Utilização de Color Blend de Atributos sísmicos na Exploração e Desenvolvimento daProdução – Redução de Riscos" (PORTUGUESE)

The exploration target of the pre-salt region from Brazilian offshore basins pose requires extensive use of pre- and post-stack processing and visualization techniques. Read more 

GEOExPro 2015 - Cognitive Interpretation

Despite the complexity and sophistication of the processes involved, vision and cognition are processes that we carry out quickly, continuously and with no conscious effort - view the article

Interpretation Journal, August 2015

Visualization, interpretation, and cognitive cybernetics

Interpretation of 3D seismic data involves the analysis and integration of many forms and derivatives of the original reflectivity data. This can lead to the generation of an overwhelming amount of data that can be difficult to use effectively when relying on conventional interpretation techniques. Read more

SEG New Orleans 2015

Analysis of a pseudo-3D volume derived from a 2D line using 3D volumetric attributes

When compared with 3D seismic data the availability of 2D lines is orders of magnitude greater. This is due to historic, financial, and economic reasons. In frontier areas, the first seismic data available is typically 2D and in mature areas, there will be a large amount of 2D data available as well. Read more


EAGE Shallow Marine Geophysics Conference, September 2014

Detailed Imaging of Seabed and Sub-seabed Geology from 3D Seismic Data Using Frequency Decomposition

The study focuses on detailed imaging of the seabed and the shallow sub-seabed sequences of a deep water area particularly affected by seabed features such as pockmarks, faults, carbonate hardgrounds and hydrate mounds. Read more

AAPG Hedberg Research Conference, June 2014

Visualization, Interpretation and Cognitive Cybernetics


EAGE Amsterdam June 2014

Prospect Validation Using Geological Expression in an existing Gas Discovery, Offshore Mozambique

Seismic interpreters face an enormous challenge to ensure that the ever-increasing amounts of data does result in improved exploration success and better recovery. Read more

Improvements to Frequency Decomposition Methodologies for use with Broad Bandwidth Seismic Datasets

Broadband technology, in its different guises, has been developed to extend the spectral width of seismic data giving more sensitivity to the features imaged at high and low frequencies. Read more and download  

Comparison of Spectral Enhancement Techniques Applied to Post Stack Data

Spectral enhancement is a technique for selectively boosting portions of the seismic signal with distinguishable frequency content. It is often applied to seismic data in order to boost the high frequency content of the data, which can be masked by underlying low frequency signal. Read more

First Break: March 2014

Forward modelling to understand color responses in an HDFD RGB blend around a gas discovery Read the article here

SEG Interpretation Feb 2014:

The use of geologic expression workflows for basin scale reconnaissance: A case study from the Exmouth Subbasin, North Carnarvon Basin, northwestern Australia

The focus of this study is to demonstrate how seismic attributes can be used in the interpretation workflow to rapidly obtain a high-resolution view of the geology that is imaged within a seismic dataset. Read more

PESGB Dublin Feb 2014

Improved Geological Inference from Seismic Data Using Composite, Color-blended Seismic Attributes 

Combining seismic attributes, such as the outputs of frequency decomposition, with 3 channel (RGB/CMY/HSV) color blending has become a standard tool in seismic interpretation for highlighting depositional geometries. Download

PESGB Poster Feb 2014

Geological Expression from Seismic Data in Unconventional Shale reservoirs

The use of 3D seismic data and its contribution to the success of an unconventional play is dependent mainly on the ability to predict reservoir properties such as total organic content (TOC), fracture density (brittleness), thickness, porosity, and mineralogy.

View and Download

GEO Bahrain March 2014

The application of High-Definition Geological Expression workflows to improve the understanding of a carbonate reservoir, NW Australia

The petroleum potential of NW Australia has led to the region becoming the fourth largest LNG producer in the world: currently accounting for more than 2% of the worlds’ gas reserves, NW Australia has an excess of 6608 tcf in the Carnarvon Basin and associated sub-basins. Read more

Oilfield Technology Magazine July 2014

A New Interpretation 

The Industry is entering a new era in hydrocarbon exploration and production. The shale revolution, the need to explore in more challenging environments, make marginal fields economic together with growing environmental concerns and increasing costs are changing the way the industry works - Read more


First Break April 2013

Perception of visual information – the role of color in seismic interpretation

Interpretation of geological features in seismic data is a subjective process, relying on one’s visual perception and experience built up over several years. Based on these human factors, financial decisions are made that may have serious consequences to a petroleum company. Read more

AAPG Pittsburgh, US May 2013

Using Geological Expression Techniques to Reveal Complex Regional Structural Information Without Conventional Interpretation

View the presentations

AAPG Hedberg Research Conference, May 2013

Understanding visual salience can improve 3D seismic interpretation software design

As the mountain of seismic data continues to grow with both new and legacy material requiring processing, seismic interpreters face an escalating challenge to turn large amounts of data into discoveries and improved reservoir performance. Read more

EAGE Tyumen 2013, Poster 

New Geotechology for the Old Oil Provinces. Application of High Definition Frequency Decomposition techniques on Western Siberia reservoirs


EAGE June 2013

Spectral Decomposition combined with geo-model interpretation: Creating new workflows by integrating advanced technologies for seismic imaging and interpretation

Identifying geomorphological features from seismic has been the aim and the challenge since the first seismic was recorded. Although the quality and resolution have improved beyond expectations from those early days, improvement of imaging and interpretation techniques are continuously on-going and new and enhanced tools are regularly presented, with potentials that are not always evident at first glance. Download

EAGE Workshop London, June 2013

Resolution from an Alternative Dimension

Seismic data contains a wealth of information, but it is often hard to get the complete picture by viewing a single attribute. Multi-attribute colour blending is an established technique that uses high resolution visualisation techniques to improve the way that information obtained from analysis of seismic data is presented to the interpreter. Read more

MEOS Bahrain, March 2013

The Effect of Noise Attenuation on Data Driven Interpreter Guided Fault Analysis

Prior to any structural attribute analysis on 3D seismic data it is usually necessary to undertake noise cancellation to remove the noise and enhance data quality. We present the results of applying noise cancellation techniques to 3D seismic data and show how that can improve our imaging and analysis of faults. Read more

PESGB Evening Lecture Series, April 2013

Frequency Decomposition and color blending of seismic data - More than an image

Frequency decomposition is a technique whereby a seismic signal is broken down into band-limited components in order to facilitate the investigation of frequency dependent phenomena imaged by the seismic data. Read more

EAGE May 2013

West Siberia Case Study

The important stage in tectono-stratigraphic development of the Western Siberian basin was formation of a deep-water sea in Volgian–early Berriasian time. The sea covered more than one million km2 in the central basin area. View/Download


AAPG Explorer Nov 2012

Innovation Drives North Sea Exploration

Who said getting older had to be a bad thing?

Not with the continuously advancing high tech world of exploration still finding newer approaches to familiar challenges.

And not when explorationists and their companies willingly embrace the technological advances that are proving to be valuable tools.

A specific example can be found in the maturing North Sea, where companies continue to look for better ways to exploit known resources – or to seek new discoveries, or to explore in frontier areas such as the Barents Sea off Norway’s northern coast. Read more

DEJ... "GeoTeric: Pushing seismic interpretation further"DEJ 2012


First Break March 2012

First Break... "Geological Expression: data driven–interpreter guided approach to seismic interpretation"


First Break May 2012

First Break... "Seismic imaging of thrust faults and structural damage: a visualization workflow for deepwater thrust belts"


GEO Expro 2012

GEO Expro: Making the Impossible, possible


Geo ExPro May-June 2012

GEO ExPro, Vol 9, No 3.. "Geological Expression-a new angle on seismic interpretation"


HART’s E&P Nov 2012

HART’s E&P.. “Finding the Balance Between Manual and Automated Interpretation”


SEG Daily News, Mon:. “The Geological Approach to Seismic Interpretation”


SEG Daily News, Tues:. “Perception and the Art of Seismic Interpretation”


SEG Daily News, Wed:.“Combining Art and Science”


SOG May 2012

Scandinavian Oil and Gas... "Geological Expression-the future of seismic interpretation"


Seismic Profile: Nov 2012

Seismic Profile... "False Perceptions : Visual Illusions in Colour Attribute Blending"


Seismic Profile... "Geological Expression : Data Driven Interpreter Guided Seismic Analysis"


Seismic Profile... "NVIDIA Cuda : CPUs vs GPUs"


SOG 2012

Scandinavian Oil and Gas... "Perception of Visual Information"


First Break Dec 2012

First Break: Understanding Seismic thin bed responses using frequency decomposition and RGB blending.


EAGE 2012

ffA Poster: Perception of visual information; What are you interpreting from your seismic.


ffA Presentation: Frequency Decomposition Methods Applied to Synthetic Models of the Hermod Submarine Fan System in the North Sea.


ffA Presentation: Perception of visual information; What are you interpreting from your seismic.


GEO 2012

ffA Poster: Adaptive Geobodies™: Extraction of complex Geobodies from multi-attribute data using a new Adaptive technique.


ffA Presentation: High Definition Frequency Decomposition and its application to Carbonate and Clastic Data.


ffA Presentation: The application of Seismic Analysis Techniques for the identification of Structural and Stratigraphic Features in Carbonate Environments.


SEG IQ Earth Forum 2012

Integrating Interpretation Expertise & Objective Data Analysis in 3D Interpretation

Volume attribute computation has become an accepted part of mainstream interpretation workflows. Perhaps counter-intuitively, attribute generation is powerful because it creates data sets that show only a subset of the information available in the original seismic. By reducing the information content it is easier to focus on those aspects of the seismic response that help differentiate particular aspects of the imaged geology. Read more

Abstract : An Investigation into the Dependence of Frequency Decomposition Color Blend Response on Bed Thickness and Acoustic Impedance.PETEX 2012


Abstract : On the Perception of RGB Multi-Attribute Displays.



American Oil & Gas Reporter April 2011

American Oil and Gas Reporter article: "Technologies Enhance Eagle Ford 3D."


DEW August 2011

Drilling & Exploration World Journal... "Understanding fault seal risk through 3D Seismic Analysis"


EAGE 2011 Abstract

ffA Oral Presentation: "Investigation of Fluid Migration Pathways Using Volumetric Seismic Damage Zone Analysis"


GCSSEPM Dec 2011

ffA Paper: 'Interpreter-Driven Multiattribute Classification.'


ffA Paper: 'Visualizing Geological Structure with Subtractive Color Blending.'


ffA Paper: 'Advanced Multiattribute Imaging and Geobody Delineation of Jurassic and Triassic Stratigraphic Targets.'


ffA Paper: 'Stratigraphic Analysis in Carbonate Zones: An Investigation Using 3D Seismic Analysis Techniques on an Offshore UAE Field.'


ffA Paper: 'Understanding Thin Beds Using 3D Seismic Analysis Workflow.'


SEG 2011

ffA Oral Presentation: Thin beds: Seismic analysis workflows to extract hidden events.



DEW July 2010

DEW: Drilling & Exploration World article: "The Future of Seismic Interpretation."


First Break 2010

Article: "Seismic analysis workflow for reservoir characterization in the vicinity of salt."


GeolSoc 2010

ffA and Dubai Petroleum Presentation at "Advances in Carbonate Exploration and Reservoir Analysis" Conference:"The use of 3D seismic analysis techniques for investigating carbonate features in two off


PETEX 2010

ffA Presentation: "Spits, channels and beaches: Advanced imaging and delineation of Jurassic and Triassic stratigraphic targets"


SEG 2010

Presentation: Data conditioning and seismic attribute analysis in the Eagle Ford Shale Play: Examples from Sinor Ranch, Live Oak County, Texas"



First Break : 2009

Article: "Seismic facies analysis featured in software release."


AAPG 2009

Palaeozoic Carbonates from the Subsurface Barents Sea Part I: Buildup Distribution, Geometry and Development.


Palaeozoic Carbonates from the Subsurface Barents Sea Part II: Paleokarst Distribution and Heterogeneity from 3-D Seismic Data. won 2009 Excellence of Oral Presentation


Quantifying the Temporal and Spatial Extent of Depositional and Structural Elements in 3-D Seismic Data Using Spectral Decomposition and Multi-attribute RGB Blending.


Brazilian Geol Soc 2009

Interpreter Driven, Interactive 3D Multi-Attribute Classification.


PGC 2009

Presentation: "Investigating fault sealing potential through fault-relative seismic volume analysis."



DEJ : 2008

Article: "Lowering the cost of High Performance Computing"


Leading Edge: 2008

Delineation of geological elements from RGB colour blending of seismic attribute volumes

Seismic data contain a vast amount of information regarding different properties of the imaged geology. Unravelling the disparate types of information to produce an accurate and detailed subsurface model is a primary purpose of seismic interpretation.

See the article

Article: "Processing on a Seismic Scale"JOT : 2008


PESGB: 2008

Presentation: "Determining fault seal indicators from seismic data."


PETEX : 2008

Where are those Lower Cretaceous Sands? Geobody detection in a depocentre

Central North Sea wells have encountered sandstone or traces of sandstone of Early Cretaceous age, providing grounds for optimism that the proven Devil’s Hole/Scapa and Kopervik deepwater sandstone fairways extend beyond their Moray Firth heartland into parts of the Central Graben. Read more 


AAPG Newsletter: 2007

Information from Images

The benefits of having high‐resolution subsurface information mean that 3D seismic is employed at all stages in the E & P cycle from frontier exploration to field development. Read the article

First Break: 2007

Automated delineation of geological elements from 3D seismic data through analysis of multichannel, volumetric spectral decomposition data

The spectral content of recorded seismic data is dependent on the acoustic properties of the earth along the propagation path. Variations in spectral content occur due to variations in bed thickness/tuning effects, the nature of the interface between different layers (fining/coarsening sequences) and changes in pore-fill, in particular, the presence of gas. See the rest of the article